Call Today

+91 9908162024


Mon – Sun, 8am to 6pm

Most of us dont think about the water we drink. Is the water you’re drinking safe or would bottled water be safer? What can you do if tap water suddenly became contaminated? Read on to know your pipe water and how to make it safe to drink and thus save money spent on drinking water cans.

In India, the major contamination of water is due to the wastewater flowing directly into water sources like lakes, rivers, or pipelines that carry drinking water from the source. Eventually, this contaminated water also enters the groundwater too.

The water which looks or tastes good may not necessarily be safe to drink. The only way to tell whether is safe is by testing it. The main testing of water is for its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The physical tests are TSS and TDS, the chemical tests are for the pH, and minerals, and the biological tests are for the presence of dangerous bacteria and viruses.

This document mentions the drinking water standards prescribed by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) tests conducted to identify the contaminations and the simple and proven methods to make the water potable (safe to drink).

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

Total suspended solids (TSS) and Total dissolved solids (TDS) measure the number of tiny particles floating in the water.

If the particles are large enough to be held back by the normal filter, it is called total suspended solids (TSS) while the particles that pass through the filter are called total dissolved solids (TDS).

TSS values are often related to the turbidity (cloudiness) of water. Turbidity is a measure of the ability of light to pass through water. It is caused by suspended material such as a slit, clay, organic material, plankton, or another minute separate particle in water. 

If TSS is high, the turbidity is also high though it is not a direct measurement. So often it is adequate to measure the turbidity of the water to know the TSS.

The best way to measure turbidity is by testing a wide variety of samples with a turbidity meter. There are many different units for turbidity. Labs usually report turbidity in units called NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units).

According to the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), turbidity levels of drinking water should be below 1 NTU with a permissible level up to 5 NTU.

Total Dissolved Salts (TDS)

The presence of potassium, sodium, and chlorides increases the TDS level in the water. The table below displays the water quality with respect to its TDS.

TDS Level in (ppm)

Water Quality

Between 50-150

Most suitable for drinking

150 to 250


250 to 300


300 to 500


Above 1000

Unfit to drink

The TDS level in water can be determined with the help of a TDS meter. A TDS test helps determine the total amount of dissolved solids present in water. The Bureau of Indian Standards prescribes a desirable limit of 200 mg/L.

TDS is reduced in different ways like Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) in water purifiers, Distillation, or Deionisation (DI).

Mineral Tests

Though there are many different minerals in the water, common and important mineral tests include chlorine and chloride, nitrate and nitrite, and lead.

Chlorine in Water

If a small amount of chlorine is found in water, this indicates that the water is clean and essentially free from contaminants. Chlorine can be measured using a spectrophotometer or color comparator test kit.

Chlorine levels up to 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L or 4 parts per million (ppm) are considered safe in drinking water.

Reverse Osmosis filtration that incorporates carbon block filters in the domastic water purifiers is an effective way to remove chlorine in the water.


High levels of nitrates and nitrites can cause several health issues in humans.

Nitrate is a water-soluble compound that is tasteless, odorless, and colorless.

Although low levels of nitrates may occur naturally in water, higher levels, are potentially dangerous to infants. Nitrate is one of the most widespread means of groundwater contamination in many parts of India.

Nitrite levels in the water can be tested using a testing kit or from the water testing labs.

According to the WHO, the maximum allowable limit of nitrate in drinking water is 50 mg/L. The drinking water standard for nitrates in water is 10.0 mg/L and nitrites is 1.0 mg/L.

The excessive levels of nitrite can be removed by the reverse osmosis process.

Lead in the Water

The greatest risk from lead in the drinking water is to infants, young children, and pregnant women. Lead found in tap water usually comes from the decay of older fixtures or from the solder that connects pipes.

Lead testing kits are available to test the lead content in the water. The prescribed upper limit concentration of lead in drinking water is about 50 parts per billion (ppb).

Reverse osmosis is a simple and economical way to protect your household drinking water by filtering out contaminants like lead. Other methods are carbon filtration and distillation.

pH Testing

pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. pH measurements run on a scale from 0 to 14, with 7.0 considered neutral. 

Solutions with a pH below 7.0 are considered acids. Acidity is commonly caused by the presence of mineral acids, hydrolyzed salts, and carbon dioxide. Solutions with a pH above 7.0, up to 14.0 are considered bases. The presence of bicarbonate ions, carbonate ions, and hydroxide ions increases the alkalinity of water.

pH is usually measured using a pH meter or pH papers or litmus papers. As per the Bureau of Indian Standards  (BIS standards), the pH value of the water needs to be between 6.5 and 8.5

Alkaline water has become a popular drinking water choice over the past few years because some people say that drinking slightly alkaline water — with a pH between 8 and 9 — can improve your health. However, there is no scientific evidence for this.


Hardness occurs when water contains high mineral levels. Hardness in water is caused by dissolved calcium and magnesium. It is measured usually as Calcium Carbonate in milligrams per liter (mg/L). The Bureau of Indian Standards prescribes a desirable limit of 200 mg/L.

Bacteria & Virus in Water

The presence of Coliform bacteria is one of the most common water contamination problems. Most types of coliform bacteria are harmless, but since these bacteria have found a way into your water, other disease-causing bacteria could also enter it. Checking for this bacteria will provide the lead for the occurrence of other harmful bacteria. So the presence of coliform bacteria is the best indicator of other dangerous bacteria in the water.

Viruses are tiny biological structures that can be harmful to a persons health. Rotaviruses are the commonly found harmful virus in water. UV or UltraViolet  Water Purifiers are mainly utilized for removing pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) present in the water.